Colditz Corona-Virus: Aktuell 195 bestätigte Fälle (Stand 26.06.2020 um 11 Uhr)
Colditz ist eine Stadt im Landkreis Leipzig in Sachsen, direkt an der Zwickauer Mulde gelegen. Im Ortsteil Sermuth vereinigen sich die Zwickauer und die. Willkommen▽ · Meldungen · Grad Rundgang Stadt Colditz · Partnerstädte · Ortsteile · Panoramaübersicht Ortsteile · Geschichte · Fotos Jahre Colditz. Schloss Colditz, historisches Highlight im Herzen von Sachsen, Offizierslager Oflag4c, Museum Colditz. Herrschersitz, Jagdschloss, Witwenresidenz – mit seinen weißen Giebeln ist Schloss Colditz eines der schönsten mitteldeutschen Baudenkmäler des Colditz Info ist ein unabhängiges Informationsportal für die Stadt Colditz. Umfangreiche Wissens- und Informationsdatenbank für die Bürger und die Gäste der.
Colditz Info ist ein unabhängiges Informationsportal für die Stadt Colditz. Umfangreiche Wissens- und Informationsdatenbank für die Bürger und die Gäste der. Colditz ist eine Stadt im Landkreis Leipzig in Sachsen, direkt an der Zwickauer Mulde gelegen. Im Ortsteil Sermuth vereinigen sich die Zwickauer und die. Die fast jährige Geschichte des Schloss Colditz war sehr wechselhaft und erlebte ab den 50er Jahren besonders in England eine gesteigerte Bekanntheit.
Prisoners who were relatives of Allied VIPs could potentially be used by Hitler as bargaining tools; these individuals were known as Prominente.
The first prisoner of this kind was Giles Romilly, a civilian journalist who was captured in Norway but who was also a nephew of Winston Churchill.
The serious political ramifications of The British Prime Minister's nephew coming to harm meant that Adolf Hitler himself specified that Romilly was to be treated with the utmost care.
As the war came to an end the number of Prominente increased. Despite being a daunting prospect, there were a number of escape attempts, each using a range of plans.
Inmates duplicated keys to various doors, made copies of maps, forged identity papers, and manufactured their own tools.
Less daring plans included pretending to be ill or mentally unhinged in an effort to get repatriated on medical grounds.
Some prisoners even managed to communicate with the outside world. The British War Office communicated with the prisoners in code and smuggled them new escape aids disguised in care packages sent from their families.
However, the Germans soon became skilled at intercepting packages containing suspicious material. Other methods used, which seem straight out of a film, include inmates being sewn into mattresses, trying to navigate through the sewers below the castle, long-term tunnel digging and the tying together of bed sheets to form rope!
Although people did actually escape from Colditz and return to their homeland, most of the escape attempts failed. There was however only ever one fatality, that of British Lieutenant Michael Sinclair, who was killed in September The Germans buried him in Colditz cemetery with full military honours, his casket was draped with a Union Jack flag made by the German guards, and he received a seven-gun salute.
The ultimate goal for anyone trying to escape was a Home Run, which is a complete escape from the castle grounds and into Allied territory.
There is some debate over how many of these actually happened. Successful escapee and British Captain Pat Reid claims in his account Colditz: The Full Story that there were 31 Home Runs, including those who were repatriated due to illness prisoners who being transported and therefore were not directly under Colditz staff control.
He managed to get out of the castle by hiding in a terrace house in a park during a game of football. Seizing the moment he managed to reach neutral Switzerland and freedom.
After a failed attempt by climbing into the rafters of a pavilion during exercise and waiting until dark, he later vaulted over a wire in the park with the help of an associate.
He then reached Switzerland in eight days on a stolen bicycle! Notable British escapees include the aforementioned Reid, who succeeded on October 14th, by slipping through POW kitchens into the German yard, into the Kommandantur cellar and down to a dry moat through the park.
It then took him four days to reach Switzerland. There was also the legendary British Lieutenant Airey Neave, who escaped earlier on January 5th, Neave crawled through a hole in a camp theatre after a prisoner performance to a guardhouse, then boldly marched out dressed as a German soldier.
Other escapes were less daring in that they involved basically legging it from the town of Colditz itself; three Frenchmen escaped while on a visit to the town dentist, all on December 17th !
In April , US troops entered Colditz town to conquer the castle. As the troops approached the castle, the Allies and prisoners feared the Prominente might be used by the German troops as hostages, human shields, or that the SS might try to kill them out of spite.
However, this was not the case as the Germans moved all the Prominente out of the castle. This decision was made after the prisoners themselves convinced the guard leader Obergruppenführer Gottlob Berger to surrender in secret.
With his aide these VIP prisoners reached American lines a couple of weeks later and Berger later received a lessened sentence after his hearing in because of his actions.
On April 16, after only two days the once-mighty prison for the enemies of The Third Reich crumbled. The Soviets turned Colditz castle into a prison camp for local burghers and non-communists and later the castle was a home for the aged and nursing home, as well as once again serving as a hospital and psychiatric clinic.
The last residents moved out in , and since then the castle has been renovated and turned into a museum with visits showing some of the escape tunnels built by WW II prisoners of the Oflag during.
There are potential plans to turn part of the castle into a hotel, ensuring that people will continue to visit this historic site for years to come.
Home Search Yesterday. Clear Search Cancel. Castle History The town of Colditz can be found in the middle of the triangle formed by the three great cities of Leipzig, Dresden, and Chemnitz, in the heart of Germany.
Home to the "incurably insane" That year the workhouse at the castle was taken over by an institution in Zwickau and it became a mental hospital for the "incurably insane".
During , the castle park was converted into one of the largest zoos in Europe. During , rebuilding of the upper floors of the castle began.
The castle was reconstructed in a fashion that corresponded to the way it was divided-— into the cellar, the royal house and the banqueting hall building.
There is nothing more to be seen of the original castle, where the present rear of the castle is located, but it is still possible to discern where the original divisions were the Old or Lower House, the Upper House and the Great House.
The structure of the castle was changed during the long reign of the Elector Augustus of Saxony —86 , and the complex was reconstructed into a Renaissance style castle from to , including the portions that were still in the gothic architectural style.
Later, Lucas Cranach the Younger was commissioned as an artist in the castle. During this period the portal at what is known as the church house was created during , made of Rochlitz Porphyr rhyolite tuff and richly decorated in the mannerist style by Andreas Walther II.
This dimension stone has been in use in architecture for more than 1, years. It was at this time that both the interior and the exterior of "the Holy Trinity" castle chapel that links the cellar and electors' house with one another were redesigned.
Soon thereafter the castle became an administrative office for the Office of Colditz and a hunting lodge. During , its then-current owner, King Augustus the Strong of Poland, began to expand it, resulting in a second courtyard and a total of rooms.
During the 19th century, the church space was rebuilt in the neo-classic architectural style, but its condition was allowed to deteriorate.
The castle was used by Frederick Augustus III, Elector of Saxony as a workhouse to feed the poor, the ill, and persons who had been arrested.
It served this purpose from to , when its workhouse function was assumed by an institution in Zwickau.
During , the castle became a mental hospital for the "incurably insane" from Waldheim. During , a new hospital building was erected in the Gothic Revival style , on the ground where the stables and working quarters had been previously located.
It remained a mental institution until For nearly years, from to , Colditz was a sanatorium , generally reserved for the wealthy and the nobility of Germany.
The castle thus functioned as a hospital during a long period of massive change in Germany, from slightly after the Napoleonic Wars destroyed the Holy Roman Empire and created the German Confederation , throughout the lifespan of the North German Confederation , the complete reign of the German Empire , throughout the First World War , and until the beginnings of the Weimar Republic.
Between and , the castle was home to both psychiatric and tuberculosis patients, of whom died of malnutrition.
When the Nazis gained power during , they converted the castle into a political prison for communists , homosexuals , Jews and other people they considered undesirable.
Starting ,  allied prisoners were housed there. After the outbreak of World War II, the castle was converted into a high security prisoner-of-war camp for officers who had become security or escape risks or who were regarded as particularly dangerous.
The larger outer court, known as the Kommandantur , had only two exits and housed a large German garrison.
Outside, the flat terraces which surrounded the prisoners' accommodation were watched constantly by armed sentries and surrounded by barbed wire.
Although known as Castle Colditz to the locals, its official designation as a German military prison was Oflag IV-C and it was controlled by the Wehrmacht.
While the camp was home to prisoners of war from many different countries, including Poland, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Canada, in May Wehrmacht High Command decided to house only British and American officers.
The camp's first British prisoners were the Laufen Six on November 7, , who were transferred to Colditz after their first escape attempt from the Laufen Camp.
Although it was considered a high security prison, it had one of the greatest records of successful escape attempts. This could be owing to the general nature of the prisoners that were sent there; most of them had attempted escape previously from other prisons and were transferred to Colditz, because the Germans had thought the castle escape-proof.
One lavish escape scheme even included a glider, the Colditz Cock , that was built and kept in a remote portion of the castle's attic during the winter of The glider was never used, as the camp was liberated not long after its completion.
However, after liberation, the glider was brought down from the hidden workshop to the attic below and assembled for the prisoners to see.
It was at this time that the only known photograph of the glider was taken. For some time after the war the glider was regarded as either a myth or tall story, as there was no solid proof that the glider had existed and Colditz was then in the Soviet Occupation Zone.
Bill Goldfinch, however, took home the drawings he had made when designing the glider, and when the single photograph finally surfaced, the story was taken seriously.
During , a full-sized replica of the glider was commissioned by Channel 4 Television in the UK and was built by Southdown aviation Ltd.
Watched by several of the former prisoners of war who worked on the original, it was test flown at RAF Odiham during The escape plan could have worked.
The radio-controlled replica made it safely across the river and landed in a meadow metres below. Captain Patrick R. Reid , who successfully escaped from Colditz in , went on to write multiple works on the living conditions and various escape attempts at Colditz from to The Colditz Story and The Latter Days at Colditz.